NDCA Policy 2013-2014 » St Vincent de Paul » Kennedy-Hunter Aff

Kennedy-Hunter Aff

Last modified by William Kennedy on 2013/11/03 00:47


==Contention 1 –The status quo==


Currently, untold numbers of Mexican men, women, and children are being unfairly imprisoned by human traffickers along the border—a bilateral partnership is critical

GARZA 2011 (Rocio, Candidate for Juris Doctor, Benjamin N. Cardozo School of Law, May 2011; A.B. (2005) Harvard University, CARDOZO J. OF INT~’L %26 COMP. LAW, March, www.cjicl.com/uploads/2/9/5/9/2959791/cjicl_19.2_garza_note.pdf?)

On any given day, a Mexican woman will be promised a good paying job


human trafficking must take into consideration both countries~’ interests through a bilateral partnership.


Mexico is the key—they~’re a global hotspot for sex trafficking

Department of State, 13 (U.S. Department of State, 2013, "Trafficking in Persons Report 2013" http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/2013/index.htm)//EM

Mexico is a large source, transit, and destination country for men, women


be relatively weak, and official complicity continued to be a serious problem.




====Sex trafficking embodies a patriarchal form of domination that perpetuates the belief that women should be silent while they suffer ====

Ditmore, Maternick, and Zapert ~’12 (Melissa, Anna, and Katherine, all are research consultants to the Sex Workers Project of the Urban Justice Center, "The Road North: The role of gender, poverty and violence in trafficking from Mexico to the US", August 2012, pg. 22-25 http://www.ccasa.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/The-Road-North-The-role-of-gender-poverty-and-violence-in-trafficking-from-Mexico-to-the-US.pdf , ~~[SG~~])

Violence against women and cultural beliefs and state systems that support it exist in greater


maintain a hold over the victim (Castro Soto et al. 2004).


A bilateral partnership increases prevention initiatives in addition to number of prosecutions - allows for information sharing and expedited investigations

Garza 11 Candidate for Juris Doctor, Benjamin N. Cardozo School of Law, AB from Harvard (Rocio, 11/1/11, "Addressing Human Trafficking Along the United States-Mexico Border: The Need for a Bilateral Partnership," [[http://www.cjicl.com/uploads/2/9/5/9/2959791/cjicl_19.2_garza_note.pdf-http://www.cjicl.com/uploads/2/9/5/9/2959791/cjicl_19.2_garza_note.pdf]])//AM

Victims on both sides of the United States-Mexico border ¶ would greatly benefit


about ¶ the dangers and criminal consequences of engaging in human ¶ trafficking.



A masculine ideology is the root cause of all proliferation, environmental destruction, domestic violence, and war

Warren and Cady 94 (Karen J, Duane L, feminists and authors, Hypatia, "Feminism and Peace: Seeing connections," pg 16-17)


Much of the current "unmanageability" of contemporary life in patriarchal societies, (


-nature-peace connections in regional, national, and global contexts.



Trade with Latin America is a structure of gendered exploitation – the aff offers a model to restructure history – Gender is a key question of Latin American literature

Strasser and Tinsman 10 (Ulrike Strasser and Heidi Tinsman - Associate Professors of History @ UC Irvine, Journal of World History, "It~’s a Man~’s World? World History Meets the History of Masculinity, in Latin American Studies, for Instance", Vol. 21, Num. 1, March 2010, pg. 75-78, Project Muse) //MaxL

But while historians as a group are only beginning to enter the fray, individual


masculinity in ways that are highly relevant to debates within world history today.



Refusing the systemic reproduction of patriarchy demands a new methodology

Tickner professor in the School of International Relations at USC-LA 2001 J. Ann Gendering World Politics: Issues and Approaches in the Post-Cold War Era page 139-140

Investigating how global structures and processes constrain women~’s security and economic opportunities requires asking what


their research questions, methodologies that have not traditionally been used in IR.




====Thus the plan The United States federal government should establish a bilateral partnership with the government of Mexico against human trafficking.====




==Contention 2- post plan==



====US human trafficking policies are modeled globally ====

Srikantiah 7 Associate Professor of Law and Director, Immigrants~’ Rights Clinic, Stanford Law (Jayashri, "Perfect Victims and Real Survivors: The Iconic Victim In Domestic Human Trafficking Law," Boston University Law Review v. 187, [[http://www.bu.edu/law/central/jd/organizations/journals/bulr/volume87n1/documents/SRIKANTIAHv.2.pdf-http://www.bu.edu/law/central/jd/organizations/journals/bulr/volume87n1/documents/SRIKANTIAHv.2.pdf]])//AM

As the United States continues to grapple with human trafficking, other ¶ countries are doing the same and, in many cases, are using the U.S. trafficking ¶ legislation as a model. Our trafficking approach could have global ¶ consequences. Unless we allow our approach to evolve as our understanding ¶ of trafficking evolves, we erroneously exclude trafficking victims from ¶ immigration relief.



Viewing traffic victims though a lens of otherness creates a divide between them and ourselves, which makes it easier to exploit them. Rejecting this binary is necessary to breaking down complicity in violence

Todres ~’09 (Jonathan, Professor of Law at Georgia State University, "Law, Otherness, and Human Trafficking", July 2009, Accessed via Project MUSE, ~~[SG~~])

Trafficking and exploitation of individuals within the United States and other countries in the Global


other Western countries and for the rest of us to neglect their plight.



====The devaluation of human beings because of patriarchy makes racism, classism, and other forms of oppression inevitable ====


**ASFS ~’87 (Alliance To Stop First Strike, Anti-militarism and Anti-Patriarchy activist organization, Nonviolent Civil Disobedience Handbook, Activism: Peace: NVCD: Discrimination,  http://www.activism.net/peace/nvcdh/discrimination.shtml) **

Part of struggling against nuclear weapons involves understanding the ways in which the oppression of


, they will be more effective in all struggles for justice and peace.




This femicidal violence is a direct expression of a large project of structural violence that goes unchecked in modern politics

Olivera ~’06 (Meredes, Journalist for Sage Publications, "Violencia Femicida: Violence against Women and Mexico~’s Structural Crisis", Latin American Perspectives, Vol. 33, No. 2, Accessed via JSTORE, ~~[SG~~])

Violence against women, an expression of male power, is present in various forms


insecurity, among the many other problems that fill daily life with tension.


Patriarchy has infiltrated modern politics- only a rejection of patriarchy can open up space beyond hegemonic masculinity

Tickner ~’92 (J. Ann, Professor of International Studies at American University, "Gender in International Relations: Feminist Perspectives on Achieving Global Security, Engendered Insecurities", Columbia University Press 1992, [[http://www.ciaonet.org/book/tickner/tickner12.html-http://www.ciaonet.org/book/tickner/tickner12.html]] ~~[SG~~])

While the purpose of this book is to introduce gender as a category of analysis


terms of their power capabilities and capacity for self-help and autonomy.


Interrogating the gendered assumptions surrounding current policy making exposes androcentric assumption that allow formulation of better actions

Peterson and Runyan ~’99 (V. Spike and Anne professor of political science at the University of Arizona and professor of women~’s studies at Wright State University, "Global Gender Issues", 2^^nd^^ edition, p. 14-15, accessed via JSTORE, ~~[SG~~])


Gender issues surface now because new questions have been raised that cannot be addressed within


gender inequality by also transforming other oppressive hierarchies at work in the world.



==Contention 3- This speech act==


**====Violence against women goes unnoticed by society and is the largest systemic impact—it~’s an ethical and political obligation to take a step in the right direction====**

**French et al 98** (Stanley, Professor of Philosophy at Concordia University in Montreal, Wanda Teays, professor and chair of the Philosophy Department at Mount St. Mary~’s College in Los Angeles, Ph.D. in Humanities from Concordia University in Montreal, and an M.T.S. (Applied Ethics) from Harvard University, "Violence Against Women. Philosophical Perspectives", Cornell University, [[http://books.google.com/books?id=5_deWNO1GEUC%26printsec=frontcover%26source=gbs_ge_summary_r%26cad=0~~%23v=onepage%26q%26f=false-http://books.google.com/books?id=5_deWNO1GEUC%26printsec=frontcover%26source=gbs_ge_summary_r%26cad=0]].)

Women are the victims of widespread personal and systemic violence, the true scope and


in war, when rape is used as a weapon against the enemy.



====Reshaping our gender relations is a first step to ever solve anything- negative connotations with "feminism" lead all traditional policy actions to fail.====

**Cohn, Ruddick and Hill 5 (Carol, Director of the Boston Consortium on Gender, Security and Human Rights, and a Senior Research Scholar at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy and Sara, Professor Emerita of Philosophy and Feminist Studies at Lang College of the New School for Social Research,  and Felicity, is the Greenpeace International Political Adviser on Nuclear and Disarmament Issues., Disarmament Diplomacy, Issue No. 80, Autumn, "The Relevance of Gender for Eliminating Weapons of Mass Destruction", [[http://www.acronym.org.uk/dd/dd80/80ccfhsr.htm-http://www.acronym.org.uk/dd/dd80/80ccfhsr.htm]])**


Ideas about gender shape, limit and distort professional and political discourses about WMD We


kinds of thought about the effects and consequences of strategic plans and WMD.



====Discussion of feminism is key to the reinforcing the individual because in a world where we let policies dominate debate, the individual becomes disempowered because they are excluded.  ====

**Nhanenge 7**

– Master of Arts at the development studies @ the University of South Africa (Jytte "Ecofeminism: Towards Integrating the concerns of women,, poor people and nature into development" [[http://uir.unisa.ac.za/bitstream/handle/10500/570/dissertation.pdf?sequence=1-http://uir.unisa.ac.za/bitstream/handle/10500/570/dissertation.pdf?sequence=1]]) - JS

Consequently, also social scientists apply the scientific characteristics of objectivity, value-freedom


science. (Reitzes l993: 32, 34, 42-45).



====Gender should be included as a focal part of policy debates====


**Lovenduski 2005** (Joni, Professor of Politics at Birkbeck college, University of London, author of Women and European Politics and Feminizing politics, "State Feminism and Political Representation", p. 7)

Gender is therefore an important component of the way in which issues are framed in


, traditional gendering went unnoticed until the suffrage movements claimed votes for women.




Only engaging trafficking through a discursive lens can effectively transform the social conditions that create the possibility for violence

Lobasz ~’12 (Jennifer, Professor of International Relations at the University of Minnesota, "Victims, Villains, and the Virtuous Constructing the Problems of ~’Human Trafficking~’", June 2012, http://conservancy.umn.edu/bitstream/131822/1/Lobasz_umn_0130E_12756.pdf, pgs. 80-82, ~~[SG~~])

In this dissertation, I carry out a genealogical discourse analysis. Genealogy in the


key texts and basic discourses began to reappear without major changes or additions.



Created by William Kennedy on 2013/11/03 00:46


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